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    A number of the spells which made up the Book continued to be inscribed on tomb walls and sarcophagi , as had always been the spells from which they originated.

    The Book of the Dead was placed in the coffin or burial chamber of the deceased. There was no single or canonical Book of the Dead.

    The surviving papyri contain a varying selection of religious and magical texts and vary considerably in their illustration. Some people seem to have commissioned their own copies of the Book of the Dead perhaps choosing the spells they thought most vital in their own progression to the afterlife.

    The Book of the Dead was most commonly written in hieroglyphic or hieratic script on a papyrus scroll, and often illustrated with vignettes depicting the deceased and their journey into the afterlife.

    Wallis Budge, and was brought to the London Museum to preserve it, and it is where the Papyrus Scroll of Ani remains unto this day. The Book of the Dead developed from a tradition of funerary manuscripts dating back to the Egyptian Old Kingdom.

    The Pyramid Texts were written in an unusual hieroglyphic style; many of the hieroglyphs representing humans or animals were left incomplete or drawn mutilated, most likely to prevent them causing any harm to the dead pharaoh.

    In the Middle Kingdom , a new funerary text emerged, the Coffin Texts. The Coffin Texts used a newer version of the language, new spells, and included illustrations for the first time.

    The Coffin Texts were most commonly written on the inner surfaces of coffins, though they are occasionally found on tomb walls or on papyri.

    The earliest known occurrence of the spells included in the Book of the Dead is from the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep , of the 13th dynasty , where the new spells were included amongst older texts known from the Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts.

    Some of the spells introduced at this time claim an older provenance; for instance the rubric to spell 30B states that it was discovered by the Prince Hordjedef in the reign of King Menkaure , many hundreds of years before it is attested in the archaeological record.

    By the 17th dynasty , the Book of the Dead had become widespread not only for members of the royal family, but courtiers and other officials as well.

    At this stage, the spells were typically inscribed on linen shrouds wrapped around the dead, though occasionally they are found written on coffins or on papyrus.

    The New Kingdom saw the Book of the Dead develop and spread further. From this period onward the Book of the Dead was typically written on a papyrus scroll, and the text illustrated with vignettes.

    During the 19th dynasty in particular, the vignettes tended to be lavish, sometimes at the expense of the surrounding text.

    In the Third Intermediate Period , the Book of the Dead started to appear in hieratic script, as well as in the traditional hieroglyphics.

    The hieratic scrolls were a cheaper version, lacking illustration apart from a single vignette at the beginning, and were produced on smaller papyri.

    At the same time, many burials used additional funerary texts, for instance the Amduat. During the 25th and 26th dynasties , the Book of the Dead was updated, revised and standardised.

    Spells were consistently ordered and numbered for the first time. This standardised version is known today as the 'Saite recension', after the Saite 26th dynasty.

    In the Late period and Ptolemaic period , the Book of the Dead remained based on the Saite recension, though increasingly abbreviated towards the end of the Ptolemaic period.

    The last use of the Book of the Dead was in the 1st century BCE, though some artistic motifs drawn from it were still in use in Roman times.

    The Book of the Dead is made up of a number of individual texts and their accompanying illustrations. Most sub-texts begin with the word ro, which can mean "mouth," "speech," "spell," "utterance," "incantation," or "a chapter of a book.

    At present, some spells are known, [15] though no single manuscript contains them all. They served a range of purposes. Some are intended to give the deceased mystical knowledge in the afterlife, or perhaps to identify them with the gods: Still others protect the deceased from various hostile forces or guide him through the underworld past various obstacles.

    Famously, two spells also deal with the judgement of the deceased in the Weighing of the Heart ritual. Such spells as 26—30, and sometimes spells 6 and , relate to the heart and were inscribed on scarabs.

    The texts and images of the Book of the Dead were magical as well as religious. Magic was as legitimate an activity as praying to the gods, even when the magic was aimed at controlling the gods themselves.

    The act of speaking a ritual formula was an act of creation; [20] there is a sense in which action and speech were one and the same thing.

    Hieroglyphic script was held to have been invented by the god Thoth , and the hieroglyphs themselves were powerful. Written words conveyed the full force of a spell.

    The spells of the Book of the Dead made use of several magical techniques which can also be seen in other areas of Egyptian life. A number of spells are for magical amulets , which would protect the deceased from harm.

    In addition to being represented on a Book of the Dead papyrus, these spells appeared on amulets wound into the wrappings of a mummy.

    Other items in direct contact with the body in the tomb, such as headrests, were also considered to have amuletic value.

    Almost every Book of the Dead was unique, containing a different mixture of spells drawn from the corpus of texts available.

    For most of the history of the Book of the Dead there was no defined order or structure. The spells in the Book of the Dead depict Egyptian beliefs about the nature of death and the afterlife.

    The Book of the Dead is a vital source of information about Egyptian beliefs in this area. One aspect of death was the disintegration of the various kheperu , or modes of existence.

    Mummification served to preserve and transform the physical body into sah , an idealised form with divine aspects; [29] the Book of the Dead contained spells aimed at preserving the body of the deceased, which may have been recited during the process of mummification.

    The ka , or life-force, remained in the tomb with the dead body, and required sustenance from offerings of food, water and incense.

    In case priests or relatives failed to provide these offerings, Spell ensured the ka was satisfied. It was the ba , depicted as a human-headed bird, which could "go forth by day" from the tomb into the world; spells 61 and 89 acted to preserve it.

    An akh was a blessed spirit with magical powers who would dwell among the gods. The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion.

    In the Book of the Dead , the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris , who was confined to the subterranean Duat.

    There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep.

    There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways. The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead , a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents.

    While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required.

    For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti , or later ushebti. These statuettes were inscribed with a spell, also included in the Book of the Dead , requiring them to undertake any manual labour that might be the owner's duty in the afterlife.

    The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one. The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures.

    Their names—for instance, "He who lives on snakes" or "He who dances in blood"—are equally grotesque. These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead ; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.

    Many copies of the book have been found in Egyptian tombs, but none contains all of the approximately known chapters. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.

    You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

    Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval.

    Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article.

    Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.

    Book of the Dead ancient Egyptian text. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Letters to the Dead. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Such books, when overlooked by grave robbers, survived in good condition in the tomb.

    Besides mortuary texts, Egyptian texts included scientific writings and a large number of myths, stories, and tales. Known as the Book of the Dead from about bce , it reads very much like an oratorio.

    Although there is no evidence that it was actually performed, the ritual is full of theatrical elements. It describes the journey of a soul, brought after death by the jackal-headed….

    Manuscript design in antiquity and the Middle Ages. The ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead , which contained texts intended to aid the deceased in the afterlife, is a superb example of early graphic design.

    Hieroglyphic narratives penned by scribes are illustrated with colourful illustrations on rolls of papyrus. Words and pictures are unified into a cohesive….

    Subsequently, and especially in the Late period, pure line drawing was increasingly employed. The heart of the deceased is represented as being weighed against the symbol of Maat Truth in the presence of Osiris, the god of the dead.

    A monster named Am-mut Eater of the Dead awaits an adverse verdict. Ancient civilizations graphic design In graphic design: Manuscript design in antiquity and the Middle Ages history of book publishing In history of publishing: Relief sculpture and painting significance in Egyptian religion In Middle Eastern religion: Views of basic values and ends of human life In Middle Eastern religion:

    Book of the Dead , ancient Egyptian collection of mortuary texts made up of spells or magic formulas, placed in tombs and believed to protect and aid the deceased in the hereafter.

    Probably compiled and reedited during the 16th century bce , the collection included Coffin Texts dating from c. Later compilations included hymns to Re , the sun god.

    Numerous authors, compilers, and sources contributed to the work. Scribes copied the texts on rolls of papyrus , often colourfully illustrated, and sold them to individuals for burial use.

    Many copies of the book have been found in Egyptian tombs, but none contains all of the approximately known chapters.

    We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

    Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval.

    Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article.

    Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.

    Book of the Dead ancient Egyptian text. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Letters to the Dead. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Such books, when overlooked by grave robbers, survived in good condition in the tomb.

    Besides mortuary texts, Egyptian texts included scientific writings and a large number of myths, stories, and tales.

    Known as the Book of the Dead from about bce , it reads very much like an oratorio. Although there is no evidence that it was actually performed, the ritual is full of theatrical elements.

    It describes the journey of a soul, brought after death by the jackal-headed…. Manuscript design in antiquity and the Middle Ages.

    The ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead , which contained texts intended to aid the deceased in the afterlife, is a superb example of early graphic design.

    Hieroglyphic narratives penned by scribes are illustrated with colourful illustrations on rolls of papyrus.

    Words and pictures are unified into a cohesive…. Subsequently, and especially in the Late period, pure line drawing was increasingly employed.

    The heart of the deceased is represented as being weighed against the symbol of Maat Truth in the presence of Osiris, the god of the dead.

    The New Kingdom saw the Book of the Dead develop and spread further. From this period onward the Book of the Dead was typically written on a papyrus scroll, and the text illustrated with vignettes.

    During the 19th dynasty in particular, the vignettes tended to be lavish, sometimes at the expense of the surrounding text. In the Third Intermediate Period , the Book of the Dead started to appear in hieratic script, as well as in the traditional hieroglyphics.

    The hieratic scrolls were a cheaper version, lacking illustration apart from a single vignette at the beginning, and were produced on smaller papyri.

    At the same time, many burials used additional funerary texts, for instance the Amduat. During the 25th and 26th dynasties , the Book of the Dead was updated, revised and standardised.

    Spells were consistently ordered and numbered for the first time. This standardised version is known today as the 'Saite recension', after the Saite 26th dynasty.

    In the Late period and Ptolemaic period , the Book of the Dead remained based on the Saite recension, though increasingly abbreviated towards the end of the Ptolemaic period.

    The last use of the Book of the Dead was in the 1st century BCE, though some artistic motifs drawn from it were still in use in Roman times.

    The Book of the Dead is made up of a number of individual texts and their accompanying illustrations.

    Most sub-texts begin with the word ro, which can mean "mouth," "speech," "spell," "utterance," "incantation," or "a chapter of a book.

    At present, some spells are known, [15] though no single manuscript contains them all. They served a range of purposes.

    Some are intended to give the deceased mystical knowledge in the afterlife, or perhaps to identify them with the gods: Still others protect the deceased from various hostile forces or guide him through the underworld past various obstacles.

    Famously, two spells also deal with the judgement of the deceased in the Weighing of the Heart ritual.

    Such spells as 26—30, and sometimes spells 6 and , relate to the heart and were inscribed on scarabs. The texts and images of the Book of the Dead were magical as well as religious.

    Magic was as legitimate an activity as praying to the gods, even when the magic was aimed at controlling the gods themselves. The act of speaking a ritual formula was an act of creation; [20] there is a sense in which action and speech were one and the same thing.

    Hieroglyphic script was held to have been invented by the god Thoth , and the hieroglyphs themselves were powerful. Written words conveyed the full force of a spell.

    The spells of the Book of the Dead made use of several magical techniques which can also be seen in other areas of Egyptian life.

    A number of spells are for magical amulets , which would protect the deceased from harm. In addition to being represented on a Book of the Dead papyrus, these spells appeared on amulets wound into the wrappings of a mummy.

    Other items in direct contact with the body in the tomb, such as headrests, were also considered to have amuletic value.

    Almost every Book of the Dead was unique, containing a different mixture of spells drawn from the corpus of texts available.

    For most of the history of the Book of the Dead there was no defined order or structure. The spells in the Book of the Dead depict Egyptian beliefs about the nature of death and the afterlife.

    The Book of the Dead is a vital source of information about Egyptian beliefs in this area. One aspect of death was the disintegration of the various kheperu , or modes of existence.

    Mummification served to preserve and transform the physical body into sah , an idealised form with divine aspects; [29] the Book of the Dead contained spells aimed at preserving the body of the deceased, which may have been recited during the process of mummification.

    The ka , or life-force, remained in the tomb with the dead body, and required sustenance from offerings of food, water and incense.

    In case priests or relatives failed to provide these offerings, Spell ensured the ka was satisfied. It was the ba , depicted as a human-headed bird, which could "go forth by day" from the tomb into the world; spells 61 and 89 acted to preserve it.

    An akh was a blessed spirit with magical powers who would dwell among the gods. The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion.

    In the Book of the Dead , the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris , who was confined to the subterranean Duat. There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep.

    There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways. The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead , a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents.

    While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required. For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti , or later ushebti.

    These statuettes were inscribed with a spell, also included in the Book of the Dead , requiring them to undertake any manual labour that might be the owner's duty in the afterlife.

    The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one. The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures.

    Their names—for instance, "He who lives on snakes" or "He who dances in blood"—are equally grotesque. These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead ; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.

    If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the "Weighing of the Heart" ritual, depicted in Spell The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris.

    There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins , [44] reciting a text known as the "Negative Confession".

    Then the dead person's heart was weighed on a pair of scales, against the goddess Maat , who embodied truth and justice.

    Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name. If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life.

    Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".

    This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content. The judgment of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society.

    For every "I have not John Taylor points out the wording of Spells 30B and suggests a pragmatic approach to morality; by preventing the heart from contradicting him with any inconvenient truths, it seems that the deceased could enter the afterlife even if their life had not been entirely pure.

    A Book of the Dead papyrus was produced to order by scribes. They were commissioned by people in preparation for their own funeral, or by the relatives of someone recently deceased.

    They were expensive items; one source gives the price of a Book of the Dead scroll as one deben of silver, [51] perhaps half the annual pay of a labourer.

    In one case, a Book of the Dead was written on second-hand papyrus. Most owners of the Book of the Dead were evidently part of the social elite; they were initially reserved for the royal family, but later papyri are found in the tombs of scribes, priests and officials.

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